Tech Implementation

XRGB Universal Star Bridge


The Taproot upgrade in 2021 brought the Schnorr Signature to Bitcoin, and with it, the Musig2 aggregated signature technology enabled decentralized multisignature (multisig) for BTC, opening up vast application scenarios based on decentralized BTC multisig.

Under the Musig2 scheme, suppose the aim is to have 100 Bitcoin wallet addresses jointly manage BTC, i.e., to form a multisig of 100 addresses. In this case, the private keys of these 100 addresses collectively generate an aggregated public key address. Together, they create a valid signature for this public key to manage BTC assets (decentralized Bitcoin asset management). When it's time to transfer assets, only an aggregated public key and a valid signature are needed, significantly reducing transaction byte size, thereby lowering costs, increasing speed, and maintaining decentralization.

In contrast, traditional multisig requires two-thirds of 100 wallet addresses to sign individually, a process that is exceedingly complex and generates immense data, leading to blockchain congestion, slower speeds, and increased costs. Theoretically, traditional multisig can not enable the participation of 100 addresses, thus failing to achieve true decentralized BTC asset management. Traditional multisig and distributed multisig typically set the number of signatures to 5–7 or 9–11, with more than 11 signatures significantly impacting safety and efficiency. However, Musig2 aggregated multisig can manage Bitcoin with hundreds or even thousands of addresses, ensuring decentralization without affecting cost and speed.


The XRGB USB leverages Musig2 signature to ensure the decentralization, enabling cross-chain operations of assets within the BTC ecosystem across different blockchains. The addresses participating in the aggregated multisig correspond one-to-one with the XRGB network's validators.

For instance, if the XRGB Network has 1,000 validators, the private keys of their corresponding addresses collectively generate an aggregated public key address, referred to as the Vault, which is used to manage all cross-chain assets. Users simply need to transfer BTC ecosystem tokens or BTC to a dedicated multisig BTC Address within the XRGB USB to access its one-stop, full-asset cross-chain service. This dedicated multisig BTC Address, also guarded by the 1,000 validators in XRGB Network, acts as a threshold custodian address.

Simultaneously, XRGB USB incorporates the Signal protocol to address communication issues for BTC root threshold signatures, solving privacy communication challenges in decentralized networks. This approach eliminates risks of data leakage, collusion, or external attacks during threshold signature events.


👍Efficient Asset Portability

With XRGB USB, users have the capability to smoothly and efficiently transfer their assets or tokens between different networks. This process eliminates the need for complicated manual steps or executing several transactions.

👍Increased Flexibility

The capability to move liquidity across various networks offers users enhanced flexibility in asset management. This allows them to quickly adjust to changing market dynamics and capture new investment opportunities within diverse blockchain ecosystems.

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